Protection from insect infestation may be accomplished by a combination of measures including temperature reduction and occasional fumigation. Irradiation has also been proposed to control insect infestation in cereals and other products but the cost of this expensive and controversial technology is prohibitive and in any event is limited to off-farm use. Mechanization can be a powerful stimulus to growth when it makes a new method or crop profitable (case 3). The best example is pump irrigation. Although it is always possible to lift water with animal or human power, it may often not be profitable to do so, even at extremely low wages. The pump therefore enables output to rise but the size of the increase is determined by the elasticity of final demand. Since the extra production requires extra labor, agricultural employment expands more or less in step with output.
This is based on the clear evidence of a global shift towards engine and motor driven mechanization systems. The situation is outlined in detail in Farm Machinery, (EOLSS on-line, 2002). Apart from the tractor, the farm machine that has captured the public imagination is the massive combine harvester, a miracle of modern technology.
More recently, direct drilling operations have become more popular where the seed is planted directly into non-cultivated soil using a corn drill (Figure 5) typically for winter cereals and forage crops, or a vacuum precision drill typically for maize, soybean and sunflower. Energy conservation and reduced soil compaction are evident advantages of a system that can also combine two, three or four field operations into one.
Inventive work on a particular operation often precedes by decades the widespread use of machinery. It reaches a peak during the initial adoption cycle, when derivative invention, refinements, and adaptation to different environments are required. The longest lags between inventive activity and adoption of machines occur when inventors are trying to mechanize operations for which there is as yet little demand.There are several different types of tractor tires available, each designed for specific purposes and conditions. Some common types of tractor tires include:
Agricultural tires: These tires are specifically designed for use on tractors and other farm equipment. They are typically made from a durable rubber compound and have a tread pattern that is optimized for traction in fields and other agricultural environments.
Industrial tires: Industrial tires are designed for use on tractors and other heavy machinery in a variety of industrial settings. They are typically made from a tougher rubber compound than agricultural tires and may have a more aggressive tread pattern to provide better traction on hard surfaces.
Turf tires: Turf tires are designed for use on tractors and other machinery that operate on grassy surfaces. They have a more rounded tread pattern that is less aggressive than other types of tractor tires, which helps to reduce damage to the grass and soil.
Flotation tires: Flotation tires are designed to provide a large contact area with the ground, which helps to distribute the weight of the tractor more evenly and reduces soil compaction. They are often used on tractors that operate in wet or muddy conditions, as they provide good traction and flotation.
Specialty tires: There are many other types of tractor tires available for specialized applications, such as tires with extra-deep treads for use in extreme off-road conditions or tires with a non-marking rubber compound for use on indoor surfaces.